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Sunday, September 23, 2007

My Medical Blog Community

Here are a few blogs I enjoy, and find usefull as well. Take a look I hope you will too.

NeuroRAZ Looking inside people mind

Brain blogger The GNIF Brain Blogger covers topics from multidimensional biopsychosocial perspectives. It reviews the latest news and stories related to neuroscience, psychiatry, and neurology. It serves as a focal point for attracting new minds beyond the science of the mind-and-brain and into the biopsychosocial model.

radswiki blogNot only is radiology one of the coolest job out there…Some of us are just not cut out for interacting with patients.Here is a true story

The Nurse Practitioner's PlaceMarried, proud mother of four. I am a newly graduated Family Nurse Practitioner somewhere in Florida.

On The WardsOn The Wards (OTW) is a medical blog devoted to diverse topics related to medicine, medical education, and health care. The motivation of this project primarily stems from a professional interest in academic medicine

scan man's notes
This is my personal blog. Everything that you read here is my personal opinion with the exception of statements that are clearly attributed to someone else.
I may occasionally write something related to radiology or medicine in general. These again are my personal opinions, supported by references where available. Nothing in my blog is intended as medical advice
Discover possible causes of the symptoms that you enter.
It's fast, convenient and easy to use

MSK Radiology 2This Blog contains practically relevant MSK Radiology with relevant references, links and images. Images are not taken from other websites and are from my collection. Feel free to use for teaching and learning. Some institutional websites may block viewing of the images.

Neurology Minutiae Arcane items of medical obscurity are the neurologist's lifeblood. We can figure stuff out. This blogger is interested in diseases that affect people-- go somewhere else for results of rat research. Information is meant to be advanced but clinically relevant esoterica

Twins With SMA - Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Donations Welcome

On Line Sports Auction

Several Premiership and Championship Football Clubs as well as Derbyshire Cricket Club donated memorabilia – signed shirts, photos, a cricket bat, stadium tour, match tickets and a signed pennant were sold online and raised just over £100. Many thanks to Derbyshire Cricket Club, Middlesbrough FC and Leicester City FC.

Sunday 16th September 2007 – Watercolour Exhibition/Sale

The exhibition held by the twins Grandma (Pat Wilson) raised just under £800. The day was a great success with Pat selling 39 of her 51 paintings. Money was also raised from the sale of postcards, greetings cards and prints as well as a raffle. Thank you to everyone who came and spent!!!

Monday 17th September 2007 – Evening of Mediumship

Tamworth Spiritualist Church held a special evening to raise funds for Sam and Alex and raised nearly £350. Many thanks to all those who attended as well as the special guests who gave their time free of charge. Particular thanks to Sonia Cherrington and Cindy Heath.

Forthcoming Events

Sarah’s friend Charlotte Hunter and her sister Zoe Crosby are taking part in a parachute jump in October (exact date to be confirmed) to raise funds for the boys. If you would like to sponsor either Charlotte or Zoe please email us to sponsor. Two brave ladies!!!!!
What is spinal muscular atrophy?
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular condition causing weakness of the muscles.

Is SMA Hereditary?
The gene for SMA is passed from parents to their children, but SMA can only affect a child if both parents carry a defective gene (this is called an autosomal recessive pattern). Genes come in pairs, one from each parent. If a person has one normal and one affected gene they do not show the symptoms of SMA but are carriers. If both genes are affected they will have SMA.

How Spinal Muscular Atrophy is Inherited.
Each child of carrier parents has a 1 in 4 chance of being affected by SMA, a 2 in 4 chance of being a carrier themselves, and a 1 in 4 chance of being completely clear of SMA. Boys and girls are affected equally.

Is There More Than One Type SMA?
There are several types of SMA. These differ in the age at which they have an obvious effect, how severe this effect is, and which muscles are most affected. The intermediate form described here starts in infancy. However, it does not have such a severe effect as Werdnig-Hoffmann Syndrome with which it is sometimes confused.

Types of SMA
All ages of onset are approximate
Type 1 (Severe) Also known as Werdnig-Hoffman Syndrome. Onset before or shortly after birth. Unable to sit. Do not usually survive past 2 years old.

Type II (Intermediate) Onset between 3 months and 2 years. Able to sit, but not stand without aid. Survival into adulthood possible.

Type III (Mild) Also known as Kugelberg-Welander Disease. Onset usually around 2 years. Able to walk. Normal lifespan. Adult Onset SMA Number of forms differing in age of onset. Degree of weakness is variable.

How do Normal Muscles Work?
Muscles contract, moving parts of the body, when signals from the brain pass down the spinal cord through the anterior horn cells. Each anterior horn cell is responsible for passing a signal down another nerve to a muscle. The group of structures made up by one anterior horn cell, the nerve fibre and the muscle it supplies, is known as a motor unit.

What Happens in SMA?
In SMA, it is the anterior horn cell, which is abnormal. Not all nerve impulses can be passed from the brain to the muscles. This results in some of the muscles becoming weak and wasted (atrophied).

All of the above details have been taken with permission from the Jennifer Trust website, the UK’s only existing website driven towards Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

For more information, why not visit the Twins with SMA website?

Saturday, September 22, 2007

Portable CT scanner

Eric Bailey from NeuroLogica Inc, a Danvers, MA company, recently brought his miniaturized CereTom™ CT scanner to a boxing match. He positioned it just off the ring, and offered the organizers the ability to diagnose anything that might happen, right on the spot. Lo and behold, after a match that ended with an off the ring CT scan, Lorenzo Bethea was rushed by ambulance to a hospital for diagnosed intracranial bleeding. His life was saved. American football teams have taken notice and some are purchasing the relatively mobile and affordable CereTom scanners for their fields.
... the Las Vegas incident intrigued enough teams in the NFL that two -- the Oakland Raiders and Indianapolis Colts -- have agreed to use the CereTom in their home stadiums. The hope, Bailey said, is that teams can use the CereTom to immediately examine players for serious underlying conditions that might not register in regular screenings.

Thursday, September 20, 2007


OH BABY.................................!!

How did they get them in there at the same time? they both must have been about 100lbs.

The participants (pairs of men and women) were recruited by personal invitation and through a local scientific television programme. Respondents were invited to participate if they met the following criteria: older than 18 years, intact uterus and ovaries, and a small to average weight/height index. The experimental procedure was explained in a letter sent to respondents along with an informed consent form. Participants were assured confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and the possibility of withdrawing from the study at any time. After written informed consent had been obtained, the participants were invited to come for a scan when the equipment was available on a Saturday.
The tube in which the couple would have intercourse stood in a room next to a control room where the searchers were sitting behind the scanning console and screen. An improvised curtain covered the window between the two rooms, so the intercom was the only means of communication. Imaging was first done in a 1.5 Tesla Philips magnet system (Gyroscan S15) and later in a 1.5 Tesla magnet system from Siemens Vision. To increase the space in the tube, the table was removed: the internal diameter of the tube is then 50 cm. The participants were asked to lie with pelvises near the marked centre of the tube and not to move during imaging. After a preview, 10 mm thick sagittal images were taken with a half-Fourier acquisition single shot turbo SE T2 weighted pulse sequence (HASTE). The echo time was 64 ms, with a repetition time of 4.4 ms. With this fast acquisition technique, 11 slices of relatively good quality were obtained within 14 seconds.

FDA MRI Contrast Gadolinium Warnings

Starr-Edwards Heart valve and MRI safety

Lasker Awards Announcement

America's highest medical prizes, the Lasker Awards, have been announced, and some of the winners are developers of prosthetic heart valves.
From the official announcement by the Lasker Foundation:
The Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research honors Ralph M. Steinman, 64, of the Rockefeller University, New York City, who discovered dendritic cells. These immune cells trigger other components of the immune system to thwart microbial invaders. Steinman's work has opened up novel therapeutic avenues for combating cancer and pathogens.
The Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research honors Alain Carpentier, 74, of Hôpital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Paris, and Albert Starr, 81, of the Providence Health System, Portland (OR), who developed prosthetic mitral and aortic valves. These devices have prolonged and enhanced the lives of millions of people with heart disease, providing treatment where none existed before.
The Mary Woodard Lasker Award for Public Service, awarded bi-annually, honors Anthony S. Fauci, 66, Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, a component of the National Institutes of Health, for engineering two major U.S. governmental programs, one aimed at AIDS and the other at biodefense.
The fun part for us, of course, is about the development of artificial heart valves:

The 2007 Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research honors two surgeon-scientists who revolutionized the treatment of heart disease. Albert Starr and his engineer partner, the late Lowell Edwards, invented the world's first successful artificial heart valve. This device has transformed life for people with serious valve disease, providing a remedy where none previously existed. Alain Carpentier then circumvented the predominant limitation of mechanical valves--a propensity to clot within blood vessels and the associated need to take blood thinners--by adapting animal valves for use in humans. In the embryonic days of open-heart surgery, Starr and Carpentier opened up the entire field of valve replacement. Their work has restored health and longevity to millions of individuals with heart disease.
Starr's and Carpentier's contributions extend beyond these landmark innovations. In an era before the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulated medical devices, Starr set up the infrastructure for conducting clinical trials on his valves, including an informed-consent procedure and long-term patient tracking. This practice allowed him to evaluate valve replacement outcomes and seek solutions to clinical problems. Furthermore, his surgical patients required a new type of postoperative care. To deliver it, he assembled a multidisciplinary healthcare team, creating what corresponds to today's cardiac intensive care unit. Carpentier, in turn, augmented his own initial discovery by formulating techniques to repair rather than replace valves--a venture that was aided by the availability of prosthetic valves as a backup. He continues to probe the suboptimal areas of heart-valve surgery,relentlessly pursuing superior strategies.
Prior to the introduction of the Starr-Edwards valve, no human with a valve replacement had survived longer than three months. As of 2004, four live patients had replacement valves that had been implanted at least 40 years earlier. Currently, more than 90,000 people in the United States and approximately 300,000 people worldwide receive new valves annually; the procedure is the second most common heart surgery in the United States, exceeded only by coronary bypass operations.
MRI Safety of Heart Valves:

Heart valve prostheses and annuloplasty rings.—Numerous heart valve prostheses and annuloplasty rings have undergone testing for MR safety. Of these, the majority showed measurable but relatively minor translational attraction and/or torque in association with exposure to the MR systems used for testing. Since the magnetic field–related forces exerted on heart valves and annuloplasty rings are deemed minimal compared with the force exerted by the beating heart (ie, approximately 7.2 N) , an MR procedure is considered to be safe for a patient with any of the heart valve prostheses or annuloplasty rings that have undergone testing to date . This includes the Starr-Edwards model Pre-6000 heart valve prosthesis, which had previously been suggested to be potentially hazardous for a patient in the MR environment. Heart valve prostheses and annuloplasty rings tested at 3 T.—Many heart valve prostheses and annuloplasty rings have now been evaluated for MR safety by using 3-T units . Findings indicate that one annuloplasty ring (Carpentier-Edwards Physio Annuloplasty Ring, Mitral model 4450; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) showed relatively minor magnetic field interactions. Therefore, similar to heart valve prostheses and annuloplasty rings tested at 1.5 T, because the actual attractive forces exerted on these implants are deemed minimal compared to the force exerted by the beating heart, MR procedures at 3 T are not considered to be hazardous for individuals with these implants (5,128). Additional heart valves and annuloplasty rings from the Medtronic Heart Valve Division (Minneapolis, Minn) have undergone MR safety testing at 3 T. These implants were tested for magnetic field interactions and artifacts by using a shielded 3-T MR system. According to information provided by Medtronic (Bayer KM, personal communication, 2002), these specific implants are safe for patients undergoing procedures with MR systems operating up to 3 T.

(Frank G. Shellock, PhD
John V. Crues, MD)
Here's all 16 pages of the press release: SOURCE

Find more at the Lasker Awards' multimedia presentation...
Article at the New York Times...
The Lasker Foundation press release (.pdf)...

Sunday, September 16, 2007

SanDisk Takes Action against Alzheimer’s Disease with Special SanDisk Ultra II SD Card and Cruzer Micro USB Flash Drive

MILPITAS, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--SanDisk® Corporation (NASDAQ:SNDK) today joined the fight against Alzheimer’s disease, a devastating and fatal illness now afflicting more than 5 million Americans, by introducing special editions of two products: a two-gigabyte (GB)1 SanDisk Ultra® II SD™ card and a two-gigabyte SanDisk Cruzer® Micro USB flash drive.
SanDisk will contribute $1 to the Alzheimer’s Association, the leading volunteer organization for Alzheimer’s research and family support, for each specially-branded product purchased through August 2008, up to a maximum of $1 million. The two products, which carry the same manufacturer’s suggested retail price as SanDisk’s regular 2GB SanDisk Ultra II SD card and 2GB Cruzer Micro drive, stand apart from the SanDisk line because they are purple – the signature color of the Alzheimer’s Association.
“SanDisk as a company is dedicated to preserving digital memories, so it’s appropriate for us to do what we can to help stop a disease that attacks human memory,” said Greg Rhine, senior vice president and general manager of the Consumer Products Division at SanDisk. “Alzheimer’s is a terrible disease – it is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and, according to surveys, nearly half of all Americans know someone who has Alzheimer’s. We are pleased to support the important work of The Alzheimer’s Association.”
Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease that kills brain cells, ultimately destroying both mental and physical functions. It is not a normal part of the aging process and there is no known cause or cure. Although most prevalent after age 65, the disease can strike people as young as age 30.
Alzheimer’s also puts huge emotional and financial burdens on family members of those suffering from the disease, because around-the-clock care is almost always required in later stages.
“Our new alliance with SanDisk, a well-known name in the field of consumer electronics, will help increase awareness of Alzheimer’s,” said Angela Geiger, vice president at the Alzheimer’s Association. “In addition, SanDisk will be raising much-needed funds for our education, care and support, and research programs.”
There is currently no cure or widely effective treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, but there is hope. The Alzheimer’s Association has raised more than $200 million for research since 1982, and scientists are now exploring possible treatments that would slow or stop the disease.
Susan Park, senior product marketing manger for SanDisk Ultra II cards and leader of the Alzheimer’s initiative at SanDisk, said: “By choosing SanDisk’s Take Action Against Alzheimer’s cards and flash drives, consumers get the same quality at the same price as our regular cards and drives, while making a contribution to the Alzheimer’s Association. Our goal in launching this program is not only to raise funds, but to help increase awareness of Alzheimer’s. We’re very appreciative of our retail partners who are showing their support by displaying these products on their store shelves.”
The Alzheimer's Association is the leading voluntary health organization in Alzheimer’s care, support and research. The association’s mission is to eliminate Alzheimer’s disease through the advancement of research; to provide and enhance care and support for all affected; and to reduce the risk of dementia through the promotion of brain health. For more information about the Association’s mission, visit
Pricing and availability
SanDisk’s two Take Action Against Alzheimer’s products are available now at select Best Buy stores in the United States. Other U.S. retailers are expected to begin carrying the products in October. The 2GB SanDisk Ultra II SD card has a manufacturer’s suggested retail price of $44.99, and the 2GB Cruzer Micro USB flash drive has an MSRP of $39.99. More information on the products is available at
SanDisk is the original inventor of flash storage cards and is the world’s largest supplier of flash data storage card products, using its patented, high-density flash memory and controller technology. SanDisk is headquartered in Milpitas, California, and has operations worldwide, with more than half its sales outside the U.S.
1 1 gigabyte (GB) = 1 billion bytes.
SanDisk’s product and executive images can be downloaded from
SanDisk’s web site/home page address:
The Alzheimer’s Association is a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) organization. However, this contribution is not tax deductible. SanDisk is conducting this promotion as a commercial co-venturer/paid fund-raiser and has paid for the use of the Alzheimer’s Association’s name and logo. Alzheimer’s Association has not endorsed any SanDisk products. SanDisk will not receive any compensation from the Alzheimer’s Association for or relating to this promotion.
For more information, write to: SanDisk Takes Action Against Alzheimer’s Disease, attn: Susan Park, 601 McCarthy Corporation, Milpitas, CA 95035-7932. You may obtain a copy of the Alzheimer's Association’s most recent financial report by writing to it at 225 N. Michigan Ave., Fl. 17, Chicago, IL 60601-7633 or by calling toll-free at 800-272-3900. All contracts and reports regarding the Alzheimer's Association are on file with the IL Attorney General

Friday, September 14, 2007

Siemens Technology of the future

New brain scanners promise to deliver images of higher resolution than any now available from a commercial instrument. By using multiple sensors placed close to the head, the device can generate accurate images in less time, which could ultimately aid in the diagnosis of diseases such as Alzheimer's and epilepsy. Medical imaging giant Siemens is developing a commercial version of the technology.
"This might be the biggest-impact development [in brain imaging] for the next few years, especially because Siemens is commercializing it," says John Gabrieli, a neuroscientist at MIT. "If you have a more precise view of the brain, you could take a big step forward."
In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a magnetic field generated by a large magnet sends protons in the brain spinning. Specially constructed coils of wire in the machine detect changes in the spin, which differ in different tissue types, as the magnetic field changes. Computer algorithms then use measurements from different parts of the brain to create the anatomical picture.
MRI machines in medical centers typically have up to 12 coils, but the new devices under development have up to 96 coils arrayed in a dense field over the scalp. "A small detector up close is more efficient," says Lawrence Wald, a biophysicist at Boston's Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), whose team has developed the devices in collaboration with Siemens. "But it only captures a small part of the brain, so you need lots of small detectors spread out over the scalp." Each coil measures a small but highly accurate spin signal from the chunk of brain tissue beneath it. The images are then computationally stitched together to create a high-resolution picture of the brain.
These multichannel devices have already helped some epilepsy patients. In a study using an early prototype, neurologists found abnormalities in about two-thirds of epileptic patients whose previous brain scans had been declared normal, making these patients better candidates for neurosurgery.
Scientists are now using a newer prototype to study Alzheimer's patients. "In diseases like Alzheimer's, where there is not a basic diagnosis based on imaging, we hope that being able to look at smaller alternations in the brain would yield some additional diagnostic information and perhaps allow you to monitor medication," says Wald.
Patients suspected of having Alzheimer's may get an MRI to rule out other neurological causes for their symptoms. But recent studies suggest that subtle neurological changes increase risk for the disease; these changes can include shrinkage of the hippocampus, a crucial memory area, and of parts of the cortex important for memory and higher cognitive function. Detecting these changes requires lengthy scanning sessions to generate high-quality data, making such scans unfeasible in routine clinical practice. "This technology has the potential to change that," says Brad Dickerson, a neurologist at Harvard Medical School, in Boston. While he cautions that routine clinical use is still years off, he says that "we are rapidly moving into a new era where we can use this kind of data to identify abnormalities that are consistent with Alzheimer's."

Siemens is now working on a commercial version of the 32-channel array developed at MGH, which is expected to be on the market later this year. The imaging device, now being tested by some of Siemens's customers, "increases spatial or temporal resolution," says Jeffrey Bundy, vice president of the MR division at Siemens Medical Solutions, headquartered in Malvern, PA.
The device is likely to have important applications in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a variation of standard MRI that tracks blood flow in the brain as an indirect measure of activity. The technique is often used to locate the parts of the brain that control specific functions, such as speech and movement. The first clinical application for the device will likely be fMRI for neurosurgery planning, says Bundy. "Surgeons want to know where speech and motor areas are when they take a tumor out--the more precise, the better."
The instrument could also impact our basic understanding of the brain. "The spatial resolution of fMRI is somewhat limited," says Gabrieli. "We've hit the wall on a lot of scientific questions." With higher-resolution images, scientists could try to determine neurological basis of various aspects of cognitive function. Gabrieli, for example, says that he'd like to figure out if different parts of the amygdala--a small structure deep in the brain that plays a key role in emotion--regulate different emotions, such as fear and joy.
While Siemens is putting the finishing touches on the 32-channel array, Wald and his colleague Graham Wiggins, also at MGH, are already developing new scanners with even more channels, including 96-channel and 128-channel arrays. "These are the highest-resolution brain images being taken today," says Wald. (source) By Emily Singer.

Sunday, September 09, 2007

$9 million operating room with an MRI that guides brain surgeons.

Photo by David Denney, Star Tribune
Staff members in a new surgical suite at Abbott Northwestern Hospital moved an MRI scanner into position. The surgery is paused while scans are made of the patient’s surgery site. The process allows doctors to compare scans made before and during the surgery.
At Childrens hospital in Boston, They have a Suite similar to this one. "Unlike other intraoperative MR machines, the mobile MRI lets surgeons use their usual metal surgical tools because the unit is moved into the shielded garage when surgeons are operating," says Joseph R. Madsen, MD, a neurosurgeon in the Department of Neurosurgery at Children's Hospital Boston and associate professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School.
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children—approximately 1,800 are diagnosed in the United States each year. Today, more than half of all children diagnosed with a brain tumor will be cured of the disease. The most effective form of treatment is the surgical removal of all or part of the tumor without jeopardizing any of the brain's critical functions. In order to decide which areas of the tumor can safely be removed, neurosurgeons use the technique of brain mapping.
"The cutting edge of neurosurgery is to identify and remove as much of the undesirable pathologically damaging brain tissue without disturbing the functioning areas of the brain," says Dr. Madsen. "Through the use of physiological mapping and the MR-OR, we are able to achieve this and assure our patients the best possible surgical outcomes."
The Department of Neurosurgery at Mayo Clinic in Rochester (MN), pioneered by the surgical efforts of Dr. Charles Mayo nearly 100 years ago, is now one of the largest neurosurgical practices in North America. Mayo Clinic neurosurgeons provide care to thousands of patients from around the world, performing more than 3,000 neurosurgical procedures each year -- among the highest procedural volumes in the world.

Tuesday, September 04, 2007

MRI Safetey

In the MRI field Safety is of Highest priority. We take great care when talking to our patients to find out what type of medical procedures and surgeries they have had in the past. Some Surgeries will stop the technologist from doing the MRI or the MRA exam. If you have had recent surgery, within the last two months it is important to tell the MRI technologist that will be doing the procedure on you. If you have a pacemaker, aneurysm clips, neurostimulator, or metal in your eyes, please let the technologist know. Some of the devices may be scanned with proper documentation. Many coronary artery stents and peripheral stents can be scanned upon implantation, but some must wait 6-8 weeks. All bullets and shrapnel must be assumed to be ferromagnetic and treated as such. If they are near any critical anatomy such as Spinal cord, then the radiologist and the referring physician should be consulted as to benefit vs. risk of procedure.

Here are a few Questions you may be asked when having an MRI or MRA:
1. Do you have a pacemaker or artificial heart valve? Y/N
2. Do you have aneurysm clips (clips put around blood vessels during surgery)? Y/N
3 Do you have any implants in your body (e.g. replacement joints, drug pumps, metal pins, plates etc)? Y/N
4. Have you ever had any metal fragments in your eyes? Y/N
5. Have you ever worked with metal (e.g. grinding, machining, welding) without eye protection? Y/N
6. Do you have any metal or shrapnel fragments anywhere in your body? Y/N
7. Have you ever had an operation on your head, spine or chest? Y/N
8. Have you ever had any surgery? (if yes, please give brief details) Y/N
Details ____________________________________________________________________
9. Do you have any implanted electrical devices (e.g. hearing aid, cochlea implant, nerve stimulator)? Y/N
10. Have you ever had an MRI scan before? Y/N
11. Do you wear dentures, a dental plate or a brace (not fillings)? Y/N
12. Are you susceptible to claustrophobia? Y/N
13. Do you suffer from any other medical condition that might be relevant (e.g. epilepsy, diabetes, asthma)? Y/N
Details ____________________________________________________________________
14. Do you have any trans-dermal patches (skin patches)? Y/N
15. Do you have any tattoos or body piercings? Y/N
16. Is there any possibility that you could be pregnant? Y/N

Safety Products

MRI Safety Info For Patients

Flying Objects


3d safety movie

Newmatic Medical


Monday, September 03, 2007

MedCalc cool stuff

Caseblog has a post about MedCalc, a free medical calculator for handheld devices, is now available for Windows Mobile (aka Pocket PC). The application includes more than 80 formulas and has these additional features:
* formulas sorted by categories
* units available either in S.I. or local units (defaults can be set for each item)
* most formulas come with bibliographic references and clinical tips
* results can be saved for later retrieval (Palm OS only)
* available in English and French versions (French version for Palm OS only)

MedCalc home page...

(hat tip: Clinical Cases and Images...)

Other Free Stuff



MRI Nueroarm Video